CTARA's students have participated and published their research papers and posters in 2nd International Conference on Rural Technology Development and Delivery 2020.
Following students participated in the conference.
1.Aman Srivastava (Mtech student, CTARA)
2.Nikhilesh Bagade (PhD scholar, CTARA)
3.Chandana N (PhD scholar, CTARA)
4. Satish Dulla (Mtech student, CTARA)
The details of the presentations are as follows:
Under the guidance of Prof. Pennan Chinnasamy, CTARA’s M. Tech. second-year student Aman Srivastava presented and published two papers at 2nd International Conference on “Rural Technology Development and Delivery” organized by Rural Technology Action Group (RuTAG), Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras between March 12 and 14, 2020 (https://web.iitm.ac.in/rtdd2020/).
The first research was based on the review experience on the ancient tank cascade technology from the perspective of sustainable water conservation and management in rural areas. Based on the past research publications, inscriptions, books, articles, and field visits to some of these ancient tanks, the study scientifically validated that the tank cascade systems are having potential as a rural water source (to meet irrigation and drinking water demand apart from groundwater recharge). However, there is a need felt for the revival, restoration, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of this ancient wisdom in the regions where community ownership to tanks was found limited as well as the regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Even though these tanks play a vital role in influencing micro-climatic parameters in regions of arid and semi-arid conditions, still, the study suggested redefining the sustainability of these tanks in the context of changing climate and rapid urbanization.
The second research was based on the integrated study of sustaining surface water and groundwater resources in the scenario of the rapidly urbanizing cities with a case study of city Madurai. In this research, a combination of remote sensing data observed data and survey data were used to estimate the overall importance of tanks. The study considered the trend of the rainfall, fluctuations in the groundwater level, changing land use/land cover (LULC), and their impact on the rate of surface runoff in the region having an active tank cascade system. The study identified that the increasing concrete cover, especially in the peri-urban areas, resulted in higher rates of surface runoff, rapid siltation of the tanks, and depleting groundwater recharge. Besides the change in LULC, the erratic rainfall pattern and frequent events of drought in the entire state was reflected in the reduction in surface water storage, attaining unsustainable levels of groundwater extraction using borewells/tubewells, and irregular municipal water supply to the residents in the vicinity of the tank water spread area. The study highlighted how the tanks are connected with the changing climate patterns and anthropogenic activities, which can limit the efficiency of water tanks in maintaining surface water and groundwater interaction.
Farm Household Accounting System for Financial analysis in Distressed Area of Rural India
Under the guidance of Prof Bakul Rao (CTARA IIT Bombay, India) and Prof. S B Kedare (DESE IIT Bombay), Nikhilesh Bagade, Research Scholar (CTARA IIT Bombay, India), presented a paper at 2nd International Conference on “Rural Technology Development and Delivery” organized by Rural Technology Action Group (RuTAG), Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras between March 12 and 14, 2020 (https://web.iitm.ac.in/rtdd2020/).
In this study, format for farm household(FHH) financial accounting has been developed to conduct financial analysis. The farm household (FHH) financial analysis has not been practiced and eventually not developed as a method to study agrarian distress at the FHH level. To conduct financial analysis it is necessary to document data in detail.A participatory approach with the farmers from Yavatmal district in Maharashtra state of India has been taken to develop a FHH accounting system. The financial statement analysis and financial performance measure analysis has been done based on the accounting system developed for 150 FHHs. It has been observed that only 11% of sampled FHHs from Indiragram, 39% from Malkhed, and 23% from Pathari earned sufficient from farm to attain their household expenditure in the year 2016-17. The FHHs which are not earning a profit, not able to save, and one putting their asset in risk have been identified so that help in time can be rendered. The categorization of farmers has been done in five different groups based on the FHH financial analysis. This study has direct implications with the farmers in their financial decision making, deciding agriculture practices, and for policymakers.
History of Indian sanitation and paradigm shift required for rural sanitation.
Under the guidance of Prof. Bakul Rao, CTARA’s PhD student Chandana N presented a paper at 2nd International Conference on “Rural Technology Development and Delivery” organized by Rural Technology Action Group (RuTAG), Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras between March 12 and 14, 2020 (https://web.iitm.ac.in/rtdd2020/).
This paper systematically reviews the shift in post-independence sanitation policy in India and creates a timelines of sanitation events. It was found that, water being basic need of humans, it is always given primary importance in Indian schemes. The 74th constitutional amendment act of 1992 reformed the sanitation sector by transferring responsibility from state agencies to the local bodies with its own staff, equipment and funds. This transfer resulted in a variety of implementation models, as well as a lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities of state and local agencies thereby resulting in large gaps in implementation. In addition, Indian government under Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin constructed 180 million toilets with onsite sanitation system (OSS) between the years 2014 to 2019, to eradicate the problem of open defecation. However, these toilets lack the required management systems for the collection, emptying, transportation and safe disposal of the faecal sludge (FS) produced (i.e., human waste accumulated in OSS). Around 69% of Indian population live in rural area who are dependent on OSS, it is evident that FS Management (FSM) implementation is the need of the hour for sustainable sanitation. This review shows that, there is paradigm shift required from construction of toilets to sustainable sanitation chain management.
Integrated Development To Bridge Urban-Rural Divide of India.
Under the guidance of Prof. Bakul Rao, CTARA’s M. Tech. second-year student Satish Dulla presented a poster at 2nd International Conference on “Rural Technology Development and Delivery” organized by Rural Technology Action Group (RuTAG), Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras between March 12 and 14, 2020 (https://web.iitm.ac.in/rtdd2020/).
The Government of India came up with a concept of integrated development by the convergence of working schemes in the name of ‘Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission’ (SPMRM) to tackle the problem of migration from rural to urban areas. It is to stimulate local economic development in the selected potential regions (Rurban Clusters).
This study aims to identify confounding factors in the selection criteria, classification, fund allocation and planning process of this mission in developing rurban clusters. In addition, the study explores the scope for interventions in the scheme to achieve its objective.