From toilet coverage to toilet adoption : Challenges in rural India

Name of Student: 
Prof. N. C. Narayanan
Project Type: 
M. Tech Project -I (TD 695)
Waste and Sanitation
Sanitation programs in India have largely focused on toilet coverage and lesser on promoting the usage and adoption. In this study various sanitation schemes of India have been analysed. The chasing of coverage targets to build individual household latrines and less emphasis and expenditure have become blind spot for the implementing agencies. The performance analysis of Swatcha Bharat Abhiyan using available datasets and records was done and it was found that open defecation is not decreasing as the same rate as number of household without toilet are decreasing. Various toilet adoption frameworks like Sanitation Ladder, Community Led Total Sanitation, SaniFOAM framework, Toilet Tripod model and Safe San Index have been reviewed with their identifying their strength and limitations. The frameworks are used to understand issues of toilet usage and implement behaviour change projects. The core target of Swatch Bharat Abhiyan is to declare the whole of country as open defecation free. A desk analysis of ODF declaration and sustainability procedure suggested more robust methods need to be adopted to ensure toilet adoption and ODF sustainability.