Watershed development is been in practice in India for more than two decades. Scientific
studies and literature has been devising and revising guidelines for the implementation of the
same. This literature suggests importance of popular participation in watershed development
activities in making it successful. In recent years Maharashtra has seen two major watershed
development initiatives being launched one by government and another by Paani Foundation
viz. Jalyukt Shivar Abhiyan and Water Cup respectively. These two initiatives have produced
contradicting reports about participation and quality of implementation. This report is an
attempt to understand basic features of these initiatives by studying literature.